SCORM – the Shareable Common Object Reference Model – started as an initiative from the Advanced Distributed Learning Initiative (ADL – part of the US Department of Defense) – and built on earlier projects such as AICC.
The ADL website can be a little hard to navigate, especially if you’re looking for older documents rather than the SCORM 2004 documents. So, if you have trouble locating the SCORM 1.2 documents, you can use this link to download them from the VS SCORM website.
An excellent introduction to SCORM can be found on the website of Rustici Software including a technical overview of SCORM 1.2.
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From the background reading you provided, it seems as though SCORM stands for Shareable Content Object Reference Model, not Shareable Common Object Reference Model.